You have to expect at least 23 hours for the whole trip, depending on how much money you want to spend on supplements.
This would be the fastest connection:
Malaga 1500 - 1740 Madrid
Madrid 1900 - 0827 Paris
46€ supplement for a reclining seat, couchettes and berths are more expensive
Paris 0925 - 1047 Bruxelles
Bruxelles 1118 - Amsterdam 1406
Slighter slower but cheaper:
Malaga 1200 - 1440 Madrid
Madrid 1610 - 2203 Hendaye
Hendaye 2224 - 0710 Paris
2€ supplement for a reclining sear, couchettes and berths are more expensive
Paris 0825 - 1236 Amsterdam
Even cheaper without Thalys Paris - Amsterdam:
Paris 0858 - 1000 Lille
Lille 1008 - 1154 Antwerpen
Antwerpen 1200 - 1406 Amsterdam
For detailed info on reservations and supplements: reservation-supplement-europe-train-t1561.htmlhttp://www.raildude.com/en/train-tickets-reservations-supplements
Searching train schedules online:train-schedules-europe-t1025.html
The cheapest IR pass would be a 5 in 10 global pass for 159€; however you'd still have to pay the above mentioned supplements.
If you only want to do this single trip it might come cheaper for you if you'd search for special offers on the websites of the relevant train companies.
Hope that helps for now.